FraMCoS-2 Zurich (Switzerland), 1995 Proceedings

Aedificatio has kindly granted permission to upload proceedings (thanks to Prof. Witttmann). Proceedings were scanned by Prof. Landis.


Front Matter, Preface, Table of Contents

Volume 1

Chapter 1. Fracture Energy, Strain Softening, and Fracture Toughness
A Comparative Study of GF Test Results
D.R. Brokenshire and B.I.G. Barr
1-1-2 Determination of Tension Softening Diagrams of Various Kinds of Concrete by Means of Numerical Analysis
Y. Uchida, N. Kurihara, K. Rokugo and W. Koyanagi
1-1-3 Fracture Energy of Normal Strength Concrete, High Strength Concrete and Ultra High Strength Ductile Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete
J.P. Ulfkjaer and R. Brincker
1-1-4 Effect of Model Fracture Law and Porosity on Tensile Softening of Concrete
A. Arslan, E. Schlangen and J.G.M. van Mier
1-1-5 Unified Test Procedure for Evaluating the Fracture Characteristics of Concrete
A.D. Jefferson and B.I.G. Barr
1-1-6 Influence of Notch Size, Eccentricity and Rotational Stiffness on Fracture Properties Determined in Tensile Tests
F.P. Zhou
1-1-7 The Effect of the Boundary Conditions on the Cylinder Splitting Strength
C. Rocco, G.V. Guinea, J. Planas and M. Elices
1-1-8 Toughness of Old Plain Concretes
M. Berra and A. Castellani
1-1-9 Rupture Modulus and Fracture Properties of Concrete
J. Planas, G.V. Guinea and M. Elices
1-1-10 The Effects of Mix Variables on Concrete Fracture Mechanics Parameters
Y.-C. Kan and S.E. Swartz
1-1-11 Effect of Concrete Materials on Fracture Performance
N.-Q. Feng, X.-H. Ji, Q.-F. and J.-T. Ding
1-1-12 Microstructural Effects on the Brittleness of High Strength Concretes
C. Tasedemir, M.A. Tasedemir, R. Grimm and G. König
1-1-13 Determination of KSIC and CTODC from Peak Loads and Relationship between Two-Parameter Fracture Model and Size Effect Model
T. Tang, S. Yang, C. Ouyang, W. Libardi and S.P. Shah
1-1-14 Mode I Fracture Behaviour of Recycled Concrete
S. Ishiguro, S.E. Stanzl-Tschegg, E.K. Tschegg and R. Travnicek
Chapter 2. Fracture Process Zone
Simulation and Observation of the Fracture Process Zone
T. Steiger, H. Sadouki and F.H. Wittmann
1-2-2 Studies of the Length of Concrete Micro Crack Zone
N.-Q. Feng, X.-H. Ji, Q.-F. Zhuang and J.-T. Ding
1-2-3 Further Studies of the Fracture Process Zone Associated with Mixed Mode Dynamic Fracture of Concrete
Z.K. Gou, M. Kosai, A.S. Kobayashi and N.M. Hawkins
1-2-4 Fracture Mechanics Characteristics at Crack Initiation and Propagation and their Dependence on Structure of Concrete
K. Kolver
1-2-5 Fracture Parameters for Concrete Based on Poly-linear Approximation Analysis of Tension Softening Diagram
Y. Kitsutaka
1-2-6 A Method to  Evaluate Tension Softening Model for Concrete
N. Nomura and H. Mihashi
1-2-7 A Method for Determining Fracture Properties of Concrete Through a Single Test
F.P. Zhou
1-2-8 Application of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) to Observe the Fracture Process Zone
E. Hack, T. Steiger and H. Sadouki
1-2-9 Use of the Confocal Microscope to Study Pre-Existing Microcracks and Crack Growth in Concrete
H. Sunderland, A. Tolou, E. Denarié, L. Job and C. Huet
Chapter 3. Crack Formation Under Different Conditions
Transient Fluid Fracture Interaction
V. Slowik, V.E. Saouma and Y.-S. Roh
1-3-2 Tensile Hydraulic Fracture of Concrete and Rock
J.H.M. Visser and J.G.M. van Mier
1-3-3 Influence of Stress Corrosion on Fracture Energy of Cementitious Materials
A. Gerdes and F.H. Wittmann
1-3-4 Tensile Load-Bearing Behaviour of Concrete after Long-Term Static and Cyclic Tensile Preloading
F. Blaschke and G. Mehlhorn
1-3-5 Influence of the Long-Term and Repeated Loading on Fracture Mechanics of the Partially Prestressed Beams
C. Magureanu
1-3-6 Interface Fracture in Cement Based Materials
A. Vervuurt and J.G.M. van Mier
1-3-7 Interaction of Plural Cracks in Concrete During Flexural Failure
H. Koide, H. Akita and M. Tomon
1-3-8 Experimental Measurements of Microfracture in Cement Based Materials
E.N. Landis and S.P Shah
1-3-9 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Failure of Quasi-Brittle Materials
J. Gao, M.L. Wang and H.L. Schreyer
1-3-10 On an Efficient New Numerical Method for Resolution of the Frictionless Contact Problems with a Variational Inequality Approach
A. Noune, R.M. Courtade and H. Benkhira
1-3-11 Simulations of Tensile Fracture in Concrete
A. Vervuurt, M.R.A. van Vliet, J.G.M. van Mier and E. Schlangen
1-3-12 Interaction of a Main Crack with Ordered Distributions of Microcracks
A. Brencich and A. Carpinteri
Chapter 4. Concrete Failure under Compression
Modelling Compressive Failure Using Rigid Particle Systems
Y.-Q. Liu, H. Hikosaka and J.E. Bolander Jr.
1-4-2 Softening Behaviour of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression
M.R.A. van Vliet and J.G.M van Mier
1-4-3 Experimental Observations of Concrete Behaviour under Uniaxial Compression
Y.-H. Lee, K. Willam and H.-D. Kang
1-4-4 Failure of Concrete with Oblique Weak Layer
H. Wang and X.-Z. Hu
1-4-5 Compressive Strength Variation of Concrete Specimens Due to Imperfection Sensitivity.
K. Ikeda and K. Maruyama
1-4-6 A Compressive Softening Model for Concrete
G. Markeset
1-4-7 Microcracking in Concrete under Compression: its Gradient Mechanisms and Reflection in Macro
I. Blechman
1-4-8 A Case of Compression Failure in Concrete Due to Stress Release
P. Stroeven
Chapter 5. Mixed Mode Fracture
A Simple Fracture Mechanics Model for Mixed-Mode Failure in Concrete
T. Olofsson, U. Ohlsson and M. Klisinski
1-5-2 Mixed-Mode Fracture in Concrete: a Non-Local Damage Approach
M. di Prisco and J. Mazars
1-5-3 Fracture Behavior of Concrete to Mixed Loading
S.-Y. Peng, N. Shirai and M. Irobe
1-5-4 Influence of Age of Loading on Mixed Mode Fracture Parameters of Concrete
B. Hu, G. Zhao and Y. Song
Chapter 6. Scaling Theories and Size Effect
Scaling Theories for Quasibrittle Fracture: Recent Advances and New Directions
Z.P. Bazant
1-6-2 Size Effect Mechanisms in Numerical Concrete Fracture
J.E. Bolander Jr. and Y. Kobashi
1-6-3 Size Effects in the Biaxial Tensile-Compressive Behaviour of Concrete: Physical Mechanisms and Modelling
P. Rossi and F.-J. Ulm
1-6-4 A Truncated Statistical Model for Analyzing the Size-Effect on Tensile Strength of Concrete Structures
A. Carpinteri, G. Ferro and S. Ivernizzi
1-6-5 Crack Surface Friction and Size Effect in Mode I Propagation for Mortar and Concrete
A. Turatsinze and A. Bascoul
1-6-6 Multifractal Scaling Law for the Fracture Energy Variation of Concrete Structures
A. Carpinteri and B. Chiaia
1-6-7 A Fractal Study of the Size Effect of Concrete Fracture Energy
N.-Q. Feng, X.-H. Ji, Q.-F. Zhuang and J.-T. Ding
1-6-8 Size Effect and Stability of Fracture
B. Trunk, H. Sadouki and F.H. Wittmann
1-6-9 Numerical Concrete Applied to Investigative Size Effect and Stability of Crack Propagation
H. Sadouki and F.H. Wittman
1-6-10 Representative Volumes of Cementitious Materials
Y. Xi
1-6-11 Size Effect on Shear Strength in Reinforced Concrete Beams with Shear Reinforcement
N. Shirai, K. Moriizumi and K. Ishii
1-6-12 Size Effect on Strength and Deformability of RC Beams Failing in Flexure
H. Adachi, N. Shirai, M. Nakanishi and K. Ogino
1-6-13 Size Effect in Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures
J. Ozbolt and R. Eligehausen
1-6-14 Large-Scale In-Situ Fracture of Ice
J.P. Dempsey, R.M. Adamson and S.V. Mulmule
1-6-15 Fracture Characteristics and Size Effect in Normal and High-Strength Concrete Beam
S.H. Eo, N.M. Hawkins and G.-S. Kwak
1-6-16 The Neural Network-Based Analysis of Size Effect in Concrete Fracture
A. Arslan and R. Ince
Chapter 7. Rate Effects
High Strain Rate Tensile Behaviour of Concrete: Significant Parameters
F. Toutlemonde, C. Boulay and P. Rossi
Effect of Temperature and Loading Rate on Fracture Behavior of Concrete Subjected to Uniaxial Tension
V. Mechtcherine, H. Garrecht and H.K. Hilsdorf
Dynamic Crack Propagation in PMMA
R. Jelinek, H.A. Dieterman and L.J. Sluys
Chapter 8. Fibre Reinforced Concrete
A Study on Approximation Method of Tension Softening Curve of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete
S. Matsuo, S. Matsuoka, A. Masuda and H. Yanagi
1-8-2 What is Interpreted from Fractured Surfaces in Concrete?
H. Mihashi, N. Nomura, H. Nakamura and T. Umeoka
1-8-3 Characterization of the Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Using the Load-CMOD Response
V.S. Gopalaratnam, R. Gettu, S. Carmona and D. Jamet
1-8-4 An R-Curve Approach for PUll-Out Fibres From a Matrix
C. Ouyang, A. Pacios and S.P. Shah
1-8-5 Fracture of Fibre-Reinforced Concrete Beams with Low Fibre Content
J.L. Vitek and P. Vitek
1-8-6 Effects of Fiber on Fracture Properties of Light Weight Concrete made with Fly-Ash Pelletized Aggregates
T.-P. Chang, C.-Y. Lin, C.-L. Hwang and M.M. Shieh
1-8-7 On Crack Propagation and Failure Modes in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Slabs
R. Felicetti, P.G. Gambarova and N. Zanini

Volume 2

Chapter 9. Numerical Models
Fictitious Crack Models: A Classification Aproach
S. Weihe and B. Kröplin
2-9-2 New Developments in Microplane and Multicrack Models for Concrete
I. Carol and Z.P. Bazant
2-9-3 Enhanced Microplane Concrete Model
T. Hasegawa
2-9-4 Gradient-Enhanced Smeared Crack Models for Finite Element Analysis of Plain and Reinforced Concrete
J. Pamin and R. de Borst
2-9-5 Holonomic and Nonholonomic Simulations of Quasi-Brittle Fracture: a Comparative Study of Mathematical Programming Approaches
G. Bolzon, G. Maier and F. Tin-Loi
2-9-6 Embedded Cohesive Crack Models Based on Regularized Discontinuous Displacements
R. Larsson, K. Runesson and M. Akesson
2-9-7 Computational Aspects of Fracture Simulations with Lattice Models
E. Schlangen
2-9-8 A Finite Element Approach to 3D Crack Growth in Brittle Solids
G. Baker and C.A. Grummitt
2-9-9 An Adaptive Mesh Strategy Based on the Ale Formation to Transient Finite Element Analysis of Localisation
L. Bodé, G. Pijaudier-Cabot and A. Huerta
2-9-10 Particle Model for Fracture and Statistical Micro-Macro Correlation of Material Constants
M. Jirasek and Z.P. Bazant
2-9-11 2D and 3D-Modelling of Concrete as an Assemblage of Spheres Reevaluation of the Failure Criterion
W.J. Beranek and G.J. Hobbelman
Chapter 10. Damage Models
Damage in Discrete and Continuum Models
G. Pijaudier-Cabot, A. Delaplace and S. Roux
2-10-2 A Thermo-Mechanical Damage Model for Concrete at Elevated Temperatures
G. Baker and R. de Borst
2-10-3 Some Considerations on Explicit Damage Models Including Crack Closure Effects and Anisotropic Behaviour
A. Rouquand and C. Pontiroli
2-10-4 Gradient Damage and Reliability: Instability as Limit State Function
J. Carmeliet and R. de Borst
2-10-5 Additive Volumetric-Deviatoric Split of Finite Strain Tensor and its Implication for Cracking Models
Z.P. Bazant
2-10-6 Damage Evolution Laws for Concrete - a Comparative Study
M. Polanco-Loria and S.I. Sørensen
2-10-7 A Damage Mechanics Model for Concrete Subjected to Compression
S. Akyüz and M.A. Tasdemir
2-10-8 Failure Analysis of Pre-Damaged Concrete Structural Components
L. Bodé, J.L. Tailhan, G. Pijaudier-Cabit and Ch. La Bordierie
Poro-Fracture Analysis of Concrete Using a Damage Mechanics Models S.S. Bhattacharjee, F. Ghrib, R. Tinawi and P. Léger
Chapter 11. Fundamental Considerations
Localization and Mesh Sensitivity in Gradient Dependent Softening Plasticity
F. Meftah, J.M. Reynouard and O. Merabet
Strain Localization as Bifurcation Behaviour of Elasto-Plastic Softening Materials
H. Yoshikawa, R. Nagano and K. Willam
A Continuum Thermodynamics Approach for Studying Microstructural Effects on the Non-Linear Fracture Behaviour of Concrete Seen as a Multicracked Granular Composite Material
C. Huet
Chapter 12: Applications - 12.1 Reinforced Concrete and Concrete Structures
Approximate Fracture Mechanical Approach to the Prediction of Ultimate Shear Strength of RC Beams
B.L. Karihaloo
2-12-2 Hardening-Softening Behaviour and Minimum Reinforcement of RC Beams
K. Rokugo, N. Kurihara, T. Ito, Y. Uchida and W. Koyanagi
2-12-3 Crack Spacing in Reinforced Elements
L.J Sluys and M.A. Brioschi
2-12-4 Restrained Shrinkage - Its Impact on the Response of Reinforced Concrete Members
T.S. Ahn and V.S. Gopalaratnam
2-12-5 F.E. Analysis of SFRCT T-Girders Submitted to Shear: A Comparison with Experiment
P. Casanova, P. Rossi and A. Elouard
2-12-6 Fracture of Lightly Reinforced Concrete Beams: Theory and Experiments
J. Planas, G. Ruiz, M. Elices
2-12-7 Applications of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics to Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Structures
L. Goffi
2-12-8 Dynamic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Slabs: Comparison of Simplified Methods
F. Toutlemonde and P. Rossi
2-12-9 Reinforced Normal and High Strength Concrete Columns - Fracture Mechanics and Experiments
C. Claeson and K. Gyltoft
2-12-10 Shock Wave Loading on Reinforced Concrete Plates: Experimental Results and Comparisons with Explicit Damage Model Predictions
C. Pontiroli, A. Rouquand and E. Canton
2-12-11 Simulation of Punching Failure: Failure Mechanism and Size-Effect
Ph. Menétrey
2-12-12 Fracture of Concrete - A New Approach to Predict Crack Propagation
T. Corelius Hansen
2-12-13 Adaptive Mesh Refinement Procedure of Finite Element Method for Fracture Mechanics
L. Liang and Y.M. Lin
2-12-14 Fictitious Crack Modelling of Kiln Furniture Ceramics
M.A.J. van Gils, L.J.M.G.Dortmans and G. With
2-12-15 A Strategy for Analyzing the Mechanical Behaviour of Concrete Structures under Various Loadings: the LCPC Experience
P. Rossi and F.-J. Ulm
2-12-16 Discrete Crack Modeling in Concrete Structures
J. Cervenka and V.E. Saouma
2-12-17 Similarity Laws for Concrete Structures under Dynamic Loading
J. Mazars, J.F. Dubé and S. Ghavamian
2-12-18 Crack Propagation in Concrete Specimens Subjected to Sustained Loads
A. Carpinteri, S. Valente, F.P. Zhou, G. Ferrara and G. Melchiorri
2-12-19 Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Concrete Repair Materials
V.C. Li, Y.M. Lim and D.J. Foremsky
2-12-20 Application of Fracture Mechanics to Design of SFRC Tunnel Linings and Development of Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites
H. Horii, P. Nanakorn and P. Kabele
2-12-21 Strength of a Concrete Element under the Action of Concentrated Tensile or Shear Force
V.I. Yagust and D.Z. Yankelevsky
2-12-22 Simulation of 3-D Concrete-Frame Collapses Due to Dynamic Loading
M. Hakuno
2-12-23 Linear or Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics of Concrete
G.A. Plizzari and V.E. Saouma
2-12-24 Mesh Sensitivity Effects in Smeared Finite Element Analysis of Concrete Fracture
V. Cervenka, R. Pukl, J. Ozbold and R. Eligehausen
2-12-25 Seismic Localization of Softening Cracking Damage in Concrete Frames
Z.P. Bazant and M. Jirasek
2-12-26 Application of Non-Linear Fracture Mechanics to the Seismic Assessment of Concrete Gravity Dams
M. Galli, G. Feltrin and H. Bachmann
12.2 Hygral and Thermal Gradients and Crack Formations
Crack Formation under Hygral or Thermal Gradients
A.M. Alvaredo
2-12-28 Modelling of Early Age Concrete Cracking Due to Thermo-Chemo-Mechanical Couplings
F.-J. Ulm, A. Elouard and P. Rossi
2-12-29 Bonded High Strength Concrete Overlays Exposed to Autogenous and Drying Shrinkage
T. Kanstad
2-12-30 Experimental and Numerical Study of Drying-Induced Warping of Concrete Slabs
A.M. Alvaredo, S. Gallo and F.H. Wittmann
2-12-31 Optimization of Mortars by Means of Fracture Mechanics
G. Martinola and F.H. Wittmann
2-12-32 An Insight in the Reduction of Drying Shrinkage of Concrete Due to Skin Micro-Cracking
L. Granger and P. Rossi
2-12-33 Water Movement within Mortar Analyzed as Capillary Flow
H. Akita and T. Fujiwara
2-12-34 Evaluation of Concrete Durability Based on Crack Growth Kinetics Data under influence of Elevated Temperatures
Y. Zaitsev, V. Shevchenko and T. Cherednichenko
2-12-35 Influence of Drying Induced Damage on the Hygral Diffusion Coefficient
F.H. Wittmann
12.3 Anchor Bolts
Anchor Pull-Out Tests - Influence of Boundary Conditions and Material Properties
V. Slowik, A.M. Alvaredo and F.H. Wittmann
2-12-37 Fracture Behaviour of Normal and High Strength Concrete in Anchor Pull-Out
R. Zeitler and J.-D. Wörner
2-12-38 Anchor Bolts in Concrete Structures  - Finite Element Calculations Based on Inner Softening Bands
U. Ohlsson and T. Olofsson
2-12-39 Fatigue Behaviour of Anchor Bolts in Concrete
E. Cadoni
2-12-40 FEM Analysis of Tensile Fracture Phenomena in Concrete Structures
A. Ali
2-12-41 Splitting of Concrete Covers - A Fracture Mechanics Approach
K. Noghabai
2-12-42 Computer Simulation of Fasteners in Concrete Under Fire
R. Pukl, M. Reick and R. Eligehausen

Volume 3

Front Matter, Preface, Table of Contents
Workshop 1. Numerical Modelling and Determination of Fracture Mechanics Parameters
Numerical Modelling and Determination of Fracture Mechanics Parameters for Concrete and Rock: Introduction
J.G.M. van Mier
Numerical Modelling and Determination of Fracture Mechanics Parameters. Hillerborg Type Models
M. Elices and J. Planas
3-1-3 On Fracture Mechanics in General and Discrete Cracks in Particular
V.E. Saouma
3-1-4 Softening, Damage and Higher-Order Continua
R. de Borst
3-1-5 Numerical Modelling and Determination of Fracture Mechanics Parameters for Concrete and Rock: Probabilistic Aspects
J. Carmeliet
3-1-6 The Need for Standard Test Models
B.I.G. Barr and S.E. Swartz
3-1-7 Numerical Modelling and Determination of Fracture Mechanics Parameters: Workshop Summary Report
E. Schlangen
Workshop 2. Fracture Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures
Approximate Analytical Fracture Mechanics Approach to the Design of Concrete Structures
A. Carpinteri and R. Massabó
3-2-2 Applications of Fracture Mechanics to Anchors and Bond
L. Elfgren, K. Noghabai, U. Ohlsson and Th. Olofsson
3-2-3 Fracture Mechanics in the Design of Concrete Pipes
P.J. Gustafsson and O. Dahlblom
3-2-4 Using Fracture Mechanics Concepts to Predict the Shear Strength of Concrete Structures
S. Kono, N.M. Hawkins and A.S. Kobayashi
3-2-5 Application of Computational Fracture Mechanics to Repair of Large Concrete Structures
A. Ingraffea, B. Carter and P. Wawrzynek
3-2-6 Application of Fracture Mechanics to High Strength and Offshore Concrete Structures
M. Modéer
3-2-7 Fracture Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures - Workshop Summary Report
B.L. Karihaloo
Workshop 3. Size Effects: Theoretical Concepts, Experimental Verifications, and Implications in Structural Design
3-3-1 Size Effect Aspects of Measurement of Fracture Characteristics of Quasibrittle Material
Z.P. Bazant
3-3-2 A Multifractal Approach to the Strength and Toughness Scaling of Concrete Structures
A. Carpinteri and B. Chiaia
3-3-3 Intrinsic Material Law for Predicting Size Effect in Concrete Structures
H. Mihashi and N. Nomura
3-3-4 Size Effects in Cracking of Concrete: Physical Explanations and Design Consequences
P. Rossi
3-3-5 Size Effect on Strength and Deformation of RC Beams Failing in Flexure
H. Adachi, N. Shirai, M. Nakanishi and K. Ogino
3-3-6 Size Effects: Theoretical Concepts, Experimental Verifications, and Implications in Structural Design - Conclusive Remarks
F.-J. Ulm
Workshop 4. Experimental Methods
Strain Softening of Concrete in Compression
S.P. Shah, S. Choi and D.C. Jansen
3-4-2 Effect of Confinement on the Fracture Behavior of Concrete under Compression
K.M. Nemati and P.J.M. Monteiro
3-4-3 An Experimental Study of the Microstructural Mechanism Influencing Crack Closure Stresses in a Fine-Sand Mortar
R. Dasgupta, J.C. Hay, J. McConell, K.W White and C. Vipulanandan
3-4-4 Uniaxial Tension
H.W. Reinhardt
Workshop 5. Smeared Versus Discrete Failure Analysis with Application to Pull-Out Problems
Discrete Versus Smeared Crack Analysis
K. Willam and I. Carol
3-5-2 Fastening Elements in Concrete Structures
R. Eligehausen and J. Oûbolt
3-5-3 Pull-Out Failure Mechanisms in Concrete
D.V. Phillips, D.R. Green, B.S. Zhang, C.J. Pearce and N. Bicanic
3-5-4 Application of the Finite Element Method to Anchoring Technology in Concrete
J. Nienstedt and Ch. Dietrich
3-5-5 Bridges Between Damage and Fracture Mechanics
J. Mazars and G. Pijaudier-Cabot
3-5-6 Discrete Crack Analysis of Anchor Bolt Pull-Out
J. Cervenka and V.E. Saouma
3-5-7 Smeared Versus Discrete Failure Analysis with Application to Pull-Out Problems - Concluding Remarks
J. Ozbolt and R. Pukl
Author Index